How to make a printed circuit board?

The development of the printed circuit board is an important advancement in the field of electronics. Its application in the assembly of integrated circuits has great impact on machines today. It allowed for the reduction of the size, increased functional reliability, and even decreased energy consumption.

Manufacturing printed circuit boards is easier and costs less compared to making any other form of wiring technology. Although extra effort is needed in designing the board, most of the processes involved in manufacturing printed circuit boards can be done by computer-guided instruments. Nevertheless, producing printed circuit boards can also be done manually.

In producing a printed circuit board

The things needed are board/laminate, thin sheet of copper (copper foil), chemical for etching (ferric chloride), drilling machine, annular rings, pads, and soldering equipment. In a large-scale production, important computer software must also be prepared for some advanced processes such as photo lithography, testing, drilling, etc.

The board is made of non-conducting materials. A good board or base metal (substrate) is made of glass fiber (FR4). Other less expensive but less rigid alternatives are plastic (Kapton) and cotton paper.

The first step is to laminate the thin copper sheet on one or both sides of the substrate. It is done by applying heat and pressure on top of copper-covered board for a few minutes. Once the copper sheet is firmly pressed on the substrate, the next step is to draw the required pattern for the copper tracks. The pattern is generated by Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM) software. There are many open-source CAMs out there so it shouldn’t be hard to get one.

There are many complicated methods to imprint the pattern on the copper sheet.

One is through the use of laser ink. For large-scale production of printed circuit boards, copper printing is done using machines dedicated for this purpose. In making simple printed circuit boards, the following process is applied. First, print the pattern using laser ink on a glossy piece of paper. Place the printed (glossy) side of the paper against the top of the board. Use an iron and press it against the board for a few minutes depending on the type of paper used. Submerge the board and the paper in hot water for 10 minutes. Remove the glossy paper and the pattern will be left printed on the board. Soak it again if some part of paper is hard to peel off.

Another method is by using a UV insulating chamber/machine and a photosensitive board.

The process is essentially the same as the previous one. Instead of glossy paper though, a transparent sheet is used. The pattern is printed using laser ink on the transparent sheet. The printed transparent sheet is then placed on top of the board. Afterwards, the board is put inside the UV radiating machine for 10 to 20 minutes. After getting the board out of the machine, all that needs to be done is remove the transparent sheet and clean the copper coated side.

pcbThe next step after the pattern is printed on the copper sheet is to submerge the board in the chemical etchant. Ferric chloride is commonly used for etching away unwanted copper. It can etch away the copper not covered by the laser-ink printed pattern. In the case of UV radiated board, the UV radiated copper is etched away while the one covered by the pattern from the UV light will remain.

The board should be left submerged for 3 to 5 minutes. Once that’s done, the etchant must be washed away with water. For the laser-ink patterned copper, just remove the ink using special solvents. Using sandpaper is also an alternative.

Drilling can be done, manually or using machines, once the unwanted copper is etched away. Annular rings and pads can then be inserted and installed. Layering the solder mask and adding the silkscreen label can then be done.

Simply put, there are several ways to make PCBs, although the most popular ones seem to be based on the same concept or procedure – the main difference lies in the materials used.

Author Bio:
A printed circuit board is one of the fundamental parts of electronic equipment. It is important as it serves as the heart of the electronics, making everything function.Pcbnet your most reliable source for high quality and on time PCBs.

7 Attachment Options for Custom Lanyards

Don’t you wish that you can bring your small valuable item with you by carrying it around your neck? Custom lanyards with attachment options can do that.

1.Water Bottle Holder

A water bottle holder carries a bottle that’s filled with 1-liter of water. Some custom lanyards are longer so that the water bottle can hang to one side of your body.

The holder has a durable rubber-o ring that’s sewn to a nylon lanyard or crimped to a cotton lanyard. It also allows the wearer to engage in outdoor activities while quickly accessing a refreshing drink.

2.Slide Size Adjuster

A slide size adjuster changes the length of the lanyard. It’s installed at the top of the lanyard that touches the back of the person’s neck. The adjuster only needs to be slides up and down the lanyard.

The lower portion of the lanyard can be brought towards the person’s chest. This can be done by pulling the upper portion of the lanyard through the slide size adjuster. The adjuster also lets you adjust the position of your ID card.

The slide size adjuster comes in two types – double barrel slide and bead slide. The double barrel slide has four holes and the bead slide has two holes.

3.J-Hook

Custom LanyardsA J-hook is an attachment that most custom lanyards have. The hook opens by applying pressure to one side and closes by not applying pressure to the same side. The hook allows an ID card with a round attachment hole to be attached to the lanyard.

The J-hook comes in two types – swivel and non-swivel. The swivel J-hook rotates the attached object. The non-swivel J-hook does not rotate the attached object.

4.Quick-release Buckle

A quick-release buckle attaches and detaches an object to the lanyard. This can be done without taking the lanyard off from around your neck. The top portion of the buckle is attached to the lanyard and the bottom portion of the buckle is attached to an object.

5.Bulldog Clip

A bulldog clip has an oblong hole at the top where the lanyard can be attached. It also has jaws where an ID card can be attached to. A person attaches the ID card by pressing the ends of the clip’s jaws together and releasing the ends. The spring mechanism of the bulldog clip forces the jaws together to grip the ID card firmly.

6.Breakaway Connector

A breakaway connector prevents the lanyard from getting snagged to the person’s neck. It comes off the person’s neck when a firm tug is applied to it.

The breakaway connector’s mechanism is formed by two plastic connectors. One plastic connector has a hole and the other plastic connector does not have a hole. Connecting the plastic connectors together allows the lanyard to remain around your neck.

The top part of the lanyard that covers the back of your neck is where the breakaway connector is commonly installed. It can also be installed in the front of the lanyard that’s near one side of your neck.

Custom lanyards have three types of breakaway connectors. These are the stitch-on connector and the crimp-on connector. A bar tack sewing machine attaches the stitch-on connector to the lanyard. A pair of pliers attaches the crimp-on connector to the lanyard.

7.Cell Phone Holder

A cell phone holder has a side-squeeze buckle to attach or detach a cell phone to the lanyard. It allows you to carry and use the cell phone around your neck.

The side-squeeze buckle has two parts – nylon loop and slot. The nylon loop attaches the cell phone to the slot and the slot attaches the lanyard to the cell phone.

Use any of these attachment options for your custom lanyards to prevent losing your items.

Author Bio:
The design ,normally depend on the purpose for which the custom lanyards will be used. Custom lanyards for name badges and trade shows with no minimum orders. Our customized lanyards are high quality and priced right!

ID lanyards – a family vacation must have

One of the most common things that families do is go on vacation. Whether these vacations are long and far away or simple day trips that only require a couple hours to drive, families like to take the time during nice weather and explore together, spending time and bonding. If you are like most people on these vacations, lugging a large bag around is uncomfortable as you go on your adventures. This is why ID lanyards are a family vacation must have. They make the trip that much more comfortable on everyone.

ID lanyardsSome families take long vacations. They go to another location, stay in a hotel room, and spend several days exploring the area around them, taking guided tours, and having great adventures. Other families take more economical trips. They pile in the car, make a drive to a nearby zoo or amusement park for example, and spend the day enjoying themselves, of course stopping for lunch as they go through their day. They return home the same night from their mini-vacation. Both of these vacations require a few essential items.

No matter what kind of vacation a family goes on, though, nobody wants to lug around a huge bag full of useless stuff all day. It can start to hurt your shoulder, and it can just get in the way on something like a roller coaster or a water park ride. Parents also don’t want their children to get lost or taken if they get away from them a little bit in all of the excitement. The items that need to be taken are the only ones that most people would prefer to keep with them so that they have less to carry on their adventures.

If you have just a few items such as an ID and a few keys to a car that you want to take with on your trip into the zoo or to the beach, you will be better off just carrying these items. To ensure that they are not lost, one of the best things you can take with you on your vacation is an accessory called an ID lanyard. This great keychain can be worn around your neck and has a card holder to hold your ID as well. That way, none of your important items will be lost as you enjoy your vacation.

Don’t worry about breaking the bank for one of these, either. They are relatively affordable, so you won’t be taking a chunk out of your vacation budget to make sure that important items won’t be lost. In fact, they are so affordable that you can pick up a few extras just in case. You can also get them almost anywhere, even at a gas station along the way, so you don’t have to worry about someone breaking one, as kids sometimes tend to do with things. You can pick up one of these for less than $10, so the whole family can have the convenience of one of these great items.For best online purchasing solutions must visit site wholesalelanyards.com.

Every family dreams of a trouble free vacation, and trouble free means that they won’t have to lug around a giant bag, but important items that each person needs will not be lost. Whether the vacation is long or short, a great way to avoid any trouble on it is to make sure that everyone has their necessities and won’t lose them. ID lanyards for the whole family are a vacation must have. They keep ID cards and keys safely around the neck so that they will not be lost, no matter what kind of adventures you and your family go on for your vacation.

Tips in Making an Offer on Long island homes for sale

If you are ready to purchase a new house, you need to first decide on a budget, get pre-approved by your bank and then start looking for your ideal home. You can get the help of a real estate agent to help you look for the house that fits your needs but this can cost you more. If you buy a house for sale by an owner, this can save you money as you will not pay for the commission of the agent. You have to look for properties on your own, however.

You must also know what you should do prior to making an offer to the current owner of the house and will need to acquaint yourself with real estate contracts. In this article are the tips in making an offer on Long island homes for sale so that you will not encounter potential problems.

real estateMake a real estate contract. This is usually done by a realtor who will give you advice and recommendations on the whole process of purchasing a real estate property. The process includes contract negotiations and professional home inspections. The realtor will not charge you for such advice but you will pay his commission which is around six percent of the total price of the property. If you purchase the house directly from the seller, you should be knowledgeable about the whole procedure. You can also get the services of a lawyer who shall make the contract for you for the Long island homes for sale.

If you do not have the budget for a lawyer, you can actually look for standard real estate sales contracts at the office supply store in your locality. These contracts have easy-to-follow instructions that will give you an idea on the whole process. If your store does not have such a contract, you can look for one online. You can also look for these contracts at the website of your county or communicate with the Board of Realtors in your area to help you out.

Once you have a copy of the contract, read it carefully prior to filling in the blanks. Such a document needs general information like the name and address of the buyer and seller, the asking price and the property’s address. You will also find other basic items there such as the down payment to be put up, the closing date as well as other contingencies which need to be met prior to closing a deal. Such contingencies include getting financing within a certain period of time.

After completing the purchase contract, you should present it to the seller. Your offer may be accepted or rejected so you must have a counter-offer. Negotiations must be done until you arrive at something you both want. The reason other buyers and sellers do not want a real estate agent in the transaction is because there will be a third party who will also work for his own interest, thus lengthening the transaction.

To protect your interest, you can hire a lawyer to review the purchase contract before you sign it. This document is legal and binding and if you do not abide by it, you will be held liable.
Follow these tips when buying Long island homes for sale to finally own your dream house minus potential problems and confusion.

How to Use the Golf Drivers in Your Club Set

So, you have decided to take up golf. You have purchased the most fashionable attire to look good on the course. In addition, your club set has all the essential clubs you will need to get started. You have your woods, irons, wedges, and of course, golf drivers.

Now, buying all of these would be of no use, unless, you know how to use them correctly. It is important to understand how each club in your set can contribute successfully to your game.

To tee off, you would use a driver. This particular club is the longest in your set. Its size allows it to produce maximum height and greater distance for a straighter shot through the fairway.

Irons provide you with great versatility on the green. Depending on the number, it can also be used for drives or to make chip shots. They can provide accuracy as well as distance when you need it. Woods also offer distance for shots made on long, straight fairways. Traditionally, woods were named as such for their hardwood club head.

The utility club, also referred to as a hybrid, is the upshot when the features of a wood and an iron are combined. This particular club was promoted by manufacturers to help golfers make a long shot out when stuck in the trees or bushes that line the fairway.

Sand bunkers are another trap on the green that require the use of a distinctive club. Specialty wedges can help you blast your way out of a ditch. It is common for a golfer to keep several types of wedges in their set. These are very handy in case of sudden drops in soft turf.

Once you reach the green, the putter would be in your hands. Its unique flat design prevents the ball from bouncing when it is hit. Thus allowing for a smooth roll towards the hole.

Of all these clubs, beginners have the greatest difficulty using golf drivers. Practicing your drive is important as it would set the tone for every game you play. Driving the ball efficiently off the tee can help you score the upper hand in a friendly match.

Hitting a bad drive can admittedly lead to frustration. As a result, many beginners become too disheartened to continue. Practice is important if you want to acquire a better drive. By doing so, you are able to adopt the correct technique and apply it each time you play.

To properly use golf drivers, it is important to understand their intended use. Generally, it provides you with the ability to hit the ball off the tee at a great distance. However, distance is not the only benchmark when using this particular club.

Using golf drivers correctly also requires accuracy. Unfortunately, most beginners are not aware of this fact. They focus their attention of driving the ball to the farthest distance without consideration for its direction. Experts advise beginners learning to drive to concentrate on accurately controlling the ball’s flight. Improving speed and distance should follow afterwards.

Golf driversBefore swinging your driver to tee off, make sure to consider the following mechanics. First, balance. Given the length of golf drivers, swinging it can be disastrous without holding oneself in a steady position. To begin with, assume an athletic stance with a wide base for solid support. This position will enable you to rotate comfortably as you swing for the shot. Avoid any side-to-side motion when swinging.

Second, position yourself behind the ball when driving. When teeing off, it is best to hit the ball up to some extent upon impact. This gives the ball a good angle to launch off and maintain its height up in the air. Of course, this technique is best achieved with a balanced stance to begin with.

Third, finish the swing. Regardless of the shot’s outcome, it is best to swing to a full finish position. Doing so is also a great confidence booster. Lack of confidence in playing golf is immediately reflected by the kind of shots you take on the green.

With that, golf is also said to be a mental game. As such, it is not enough to focus on techniques. It is also important to take the time to exercise your mind as you practice driving.

When driving, focus on your target at all times. Avoid the temptation of simply wanting to hit the ball to achieve the longest distance. Aim for a specific spot that you want your drive to hit. Experts advise beginners to direct their drive at a specific point, such as the flag. Doing so will help your mind focus and give you a better game as well.

The design of any golf course is often dotted with sand traps and ponds. This aims to test the patience of players as well as their ability to make decisions. When considering your drive shot, take note of these potential hazards. Deliberate on the best stroke to avoid these.

The hazards on a golf course can also offer a player certain opportunities for a better game. Take the time to properly analyze the placement of these hazards. You may be able to make a strategic play that could help you set up for a birdie putt.

Portable Storage Container Buying Tips: 5 Basic Factors to Consider

In the past, it was rare to find a home or an office that uses a portable storage container for the safekeeping and transport of merchandise, furniture, and other belongings. Nowadays, however, the portable container manufacturing industry has boomed, and with it, the number of people relying on these containers for personal and commercial use.

It can be pretty confusing, especially for someone who isn’t an expert in storage containers, to decide on the right container to purchase or rent. However, this can be made easier by simply considering five important factors.

1. Available Space on Property

Before you go ahead and start searching for the most suitable container for you, the first question you have to ask yourself is: “Do I have enough space at home/in the office for the portable storage container?” Generally, people prefer to have the container delivered to their homes or offices, where there is a designated spot for the container to be placed. If you intend to use the container for an office or a store and you have no extra space for the container, you may simply choose a spot in the parking area. If the container is for your home, you can keep it in the garage if it fits, or in the backyard. However, if you really can’t find any space on your property that is large enough to accommodate the container, most companies will offer for you to leave your container in their storage yards. This is a practical solution as you can simply go to the storage yard in case there are items you need from the container, or conveniently have your items delivered by the company to your office or home.

2. Dimensions of Container

When it comes to purchasing a portable storage container, size does matter. The bigger the dimensions, the more space you have, and the more items you can store in the container. Naturally, containers with larger dimensions also cost more. Because of this, it is best to carefully consider first the dimension, weight, and cubic capacity of the container that you need. There are some things that have to be factored when deciding on these: where you intend to place it, what you intend to use it for (storage, safekeeping, or as a make-shift room), and the things that you plan to store in it.

3. Container Type

Portable Storage containerAfter you have decided on the above factors, the next thing you have to consider is the type of container that you have to get. Container types are based on the material that the container is composed of. Plastic, aluminum, and steel containers are some of the more common types that you can choose from. The amount of merchandise, type of things you plan to store, and the area in which the container will be placed in will determine the type of container that suits your requirements.

4.Safety Features

Whether you are to use the portable storage container for the safekeeping of your merchandise and personal belongings, or if you plan to use the container as a makeshift office or room, it is very important to carefully look into the safety features that a container is equipped with. The most basic of these are fire-resistance, water-resistance, and rust-resistance. It is better to spend a little more in making sure that a container has all these basic safety features rather than end up with regret when you lose a lot due to damage.

5. Cost

Finally, you also must consider the price being offered for the purchase or rental of a portable container. Regardless of the quality, the company must be able to offer a competitive price. Make sure that you compare prices before you make a final decision so that you can be certain that you are getting the best deal possible.

Simply use this as a guide and you can easily narrow down you search for the best portable storage container for all your personal and entrepreneurial needs.

The Noble Uses of Custom Military Coins

Custom military coins have been around for many decades as part of a well-loved tradition. They are used to honour men and women in military service and to identify their military branches or special units. Over the years, the coins have been used to serve purposes that are even nobler than the purposes for which they were initially crafted.

Nowadays, military coins are often utilized to raise moneyfor various needs. Specially designed and minted military coins are popular among collectors because they are usually limited editions. Many civilians buy military challenge coins primarily to show appreciation for the men and women in military service and those who have retired after a long career in the military.

Custom military coins symbolize the values of an Armed Forces unit or an organization. Each coin bears the emblem that represents the principles that they live and fight for. Some military coins are even engraved with an organization’s motto.

custom military coinsSpecial missions and task forces are commonly organized for a variety of purposes and they are often comprised of members coming from different units. Custom military coins are a great way to promote cohesion and camaraderie among the team members who will be working together for the first time. They also serve as keepsakes and remembrance of the unique opportunity to work on a sensitivemission.

Military coins are superb morale boosters. They are used to honour outstanding work and to celebrate significant career highlights. A military coin bearing the awardee’s name and badge number is a personal and touching way to honour and recognize a job well done. More durable than certificates and ribbons, military coins are highly coveted as mementos and collectible items.

Custom military coins are likewise used to express gratitude and appreciation for an individual’s contribution to a good cause or for giving an exemplary performance. Noteworthy deeds that may not deserve outright promotion or official medals are acknowledged with an appropriate military coin. Cpl. Stephen M. Roberts, a machine gunner, received a special minted battalion commander’s coin for reporting the suspicious actions of six persons who were surveying the perimeters of the Kandahar Airport in Afghanistan. His alertness and timely action aborted whatever mission was afoot.

Unit commanders utilize custom military coins to build morale, foster team spirit, and recognizehardworking service members. This is typified by commanders from the Air Force Reserve who give out a Commander’s Coin each quarter during weekend drills to reservists who demonstrate exemplary dedication to the Air Force Core Values.

Military coins are not just collected but likewise exchanged among military members. It is a quick way to build and spread camaraderie within the organization. There are even stories of marriage proposals sealed with a military challenge coin instead of conventional engagement rings.

Specially crafted military coins are also presented to honour and welcome visiting dignitaries or high ranking officials from other countries.

Because of their widespread use in the Armed Forces and the wealth of imagination at work, the traditionally round military challenge coins have assumed many shapes and sizes, mainly to reflect the giver’s preferences and the purposes for which they are being minted. Several military coins have, in fact, become collector’s items not only because of their rarity, but because of their metallurgical features and aesthetic value.

Unlike their roughly-made predecessors, modern military coins can be crafted in fine detail, which in turn allows a lot of relevant information to be displayed. A custom coin can actually contain more than one emblem on either side with a range of color choices to match a military unit’s spirit or the organization’s ideals.

Live chat for business is the future

toolsLive chat is just a simple communication tool similar to phone calls, text messaging and emails, but why is its popularity increasing steadily? This is because live chat is not an ordinary communication tool. It is rather the smart and efficient way to connect with and contact other people.

Live chat may have started as a better way to contact friends and family, but recently, it has also revolutionized the business industry. Incorporating live chat in business may seem a little doubtful but it is the future. One can actually see them all the time in spy, sci-fi, and futuristic movies. One company or organization is having a round table discussion or promoting an idea to several other people from different parts of the world in their holographic forms.  Since there is a limit to the current technology, live chat is all people can manage. However, live chat is like the prototype of such settings and scenarios in the future. This is because through live chat, one can actually meet and greet several business partners from different parts of the globe simultaneously.

increasingLive chat for business is actually in use in more companies than you can imagine, and it is more useful than you think. Several live chat for business applications can actually allow one to send and receive files just like an email, and allow parties to freely discuss about it as if they are meeting in person. Moreover, some applications also allow one to show what they are working on their laptop screens. Hence, a slideshow presentation can actually be given even if the presenter is thousands of miles away. At the same time, the audience can also ask questions as if the lecturer is just in front of them. Other applications also allow co-workers to work on a single file or report simultaneously while discussing it at the same time. Everyone can see the report being written in real-time so they can also comment and give revisions. This then allows a much faster way of working and turning in of outputs and submissions.

As mentioned previously, live chat for business is not just some means of communication. It is a smart and efficient way of communication. For business operations that require more than a dozen deliveries all over the country in a single day, one can easily keep track because some live chat applications can also tell the location of the person you are talking to. For company bosses, it is also a great means to track down and verify where your employees are.

efficientLive chat for business is really a powerful means of communication. It is very cost-effective since one can significantly reduce the number of his travels in a year. Live chats are also very cheap or are actually free. It is more effective than phone calls and emails since one can call more than one person and they can see one another’s face and expressions. There is also an option in the software to switch to instant messaging when the time is a little bit inconvenient. It is still however real-time and similar to a conversation or discussion between two people over a cup of coffee. Live chat is also very convenient because it can be installed on smartphones, and hence one can carry their work or their office anytime and anywhere they go.

Live chat is also another way to stand out and be friendlier to the customers. It is seriously the prototype of holographic business meetings so a company should not hesitate to incorporate it in their businesses if they do not want to get left behind.